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Table 1 Core analytical codes of the “Inquiry Graphics” model which embeds Edusemiotic principles of Peircean meaning making triad

From: Analysing videos in educational research: an “Inquiry Graphics” approach for multimodal, Peircean semiotic coding of video data

Representation focus (Representamen-led, sign vehicle)
Element (E) Anything (any object) represented that the researcher can observe, including animate objects such as humans, is identified as a list of individual nouns (Elements). Starting from the Element, researcher decides the level of the analysis needed (how fine grained or not)
Numbering Identified Elements are counted and numbered
Sense vehicle focus (Interpretant-led): Denotation and Connotation
Element Denotation (ED) Basic generic description of an action or state focusing on a particular Element (e.g. face, hand) is provided. This also refers to element positioning/states, what happens to them; e.g. “a hand is doing a gesture, moving up and down”. The quoted description is an ED of the element hand (of an element body).
Element Connotation (EC) This means that ED moves to the next level of interpretation: this code assigns an environmental/socio-cultural/contextual meaning to ED (How does the element, context and socio-cultural particularities jointly make this action mean what it means?). E.g. the gesture’s meaning in the given context is considered and stated. Connotation is still a descriptive code.
Composition Denotation (CD) A more basic description of an action linked to any identified composition/relationship of a few elements; any chosen composition or what is happening holistically in an entire scene (1 whole video scene or smaller “scenes” with a few elements)
Composition Connotation (CC) CD is more strongly assigned an environmental/socio-cultural/contextual meaning (how the element, context and socio-cultural particularities jointly make this action mean what it means in the given context)
Action focus (Relating to ED-EC; CD-CC) Extracting particular action focus from animate or inanimate element or compositions, extracted to be the focus of further analysis (e.g. for humans (body): sitting, gesturing, gazing; for objects: falling, showing content, running on batteries, etc.) – the researcher extracts the main “action” with element/composition focus for analysis, based on previous codes, and as relevant to research aims, questions and theory/concepts.
Speech/sound transcript Speech is transcribed and thematically coded for meaning in relation to the visual video transcript and research aims/questions/key concepts.
Research Object (Object-led)
Critical and analytical inferences, conclusions and connections made in relation to research goal, theory, and research questions. This means to do a multimodal thematic coding of data by linking holistically key theory terms/key research aims and concepts to an IG multimodal transcript (this includes speech transcript together with the focused “Representamen-Interpretant” interpretation).
This is the point when the researcher asks: “So what? What does all the presented and described (e.g. Denotation and Connotation) mean in the context of my research?”