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Table 3 Illustrations of the coding examples provided in the article, related to elements, denotation, connotation, action focus, and speech, applied in a grid template

From: Analysing videos in educational research: an “Inquiry Graphics” approach for multimodal, Peircean semiotic coding of video data

Video scene (optional: video image) Representamen (Representation focus) Interpretant Sense vehicle Action focus Speech Research Object
Time duration List No. Denotation (ED) Connotation (EC)  
Elements 1) man/body//hand//face
2) screen
3) laptop
1) 1/1//2//1
2) 1
3) many
1) a young adult male is raising his hand, eyes and eyebrows in an expression signalling emotional discomfort 1) a male student in an English speaking environment is seeking permission from the lecturer to speak, looking distressed, and asks to leave the seminar room Hand: raising/seeking permission “Can I please leave the session now?” Interpretations depends on research questions and focus.